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27.5.2020 : 10:46 : +0200

Violent Deaths

Violent deaths take place in any context, in armed conflict as well as in non-conflict settings. With the lines between conflict-related, criminal, and interpersonal forms of violence increasingly blurred, these deaths may be recorded under different categories—or not at all—depending on the context. Violent deaths include direct conflict deaths, intentional and unintentional homicide, and killings that occur in the context of legal interventions, such as extra-judicial killings.


Small Arms Survey Publications

  • Gender Counts: Assessing Global Armed Violence Datasets for Gender Relevance, by Anna Alvazzi del Frate, Gergely Hideg, and Emile LeBrun. Briefing Paper. March 2020. (Also available in French)

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  • Darkening Horizons: Global Violent Deaths Scenarios, 2018–30, by Gergely Hideg and Anna Alvazzi del Frate. Briefing Paper, May 2019.

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  • Counting Casualties: Operationalizing SDG Indicator 16.1.2 in Libya, by Hana Salama. SANA Briefing Paper, February 2018 (also available in Arabic).

    Download (1018.91 KB)
  • Global Violent Deaths 2017: Time to Decide, by Claire Mc Evoy and Gergely Hideg. Small Arms Survey Report, December 2017.

    Download (3.76 MB)
  • Tracking Conflict-related Deaths: A Preliminary Overview of Monitoring Systems, by Irene Pavesi. Briefing Paper, March 2017.

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  • Monitoring Trends in Violent Deaths, September 2016. Research Note No. 59.

    Download (1.92 MB)
  • Global Burden of Armed Violence 2015: Every Body Counts, by the Geneva Declaration Secretariat. Published by Cambridge University Press. May 2015.

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  • Global Burden of Armed Violence 2011: Lethal Encounters, by the Geneva Declaration Secretariat. Published by Cambridge University Press. October 2011.

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  • Global Burden of Armed Violence 2008, by the Geneva Declaration Secretariat, September 2008.

  • Armed Violence Prevention and Reduction: A Challenge for Achieving the Millennium Development Goals, by Keith Krause and Robert Muggah, June 2008

  • Small Arms in Burundi: Disarming the Civilian Population in Peacetime, by Stéphanie Pézard and Nicolas Florquin, a study by the Small Arms Survey and the Ligue Iteka with support from UNDP–Burundi and Oxfam–NOVIB, August 2007. Special Report No. 7 (also available in French)

    Download (2.97 MB)
  • La République Centrafricaine: une étude de cas sur les armes légères et les conflits, by Eric G. Berman, with the support of UNDP, July 2006. Special Report No. 6

    Download (626.16 KB)
  • The Use and Perception of Weapons Before and After Conflict: Evidence from Rwanda, by Cécelle Meijer and Philip Verwimp, October 2005. Working Paper No. 2

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  • The Role of Small Arms During the 2003–2004 Conflict in Iraq, by Riyadh Lafta et al., September 2005. Working Paper No. 1

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  • Gun-running in Papua New Guinea: From Arrows to Assault Weapons in the Southern Highlands, by Philip Alpers, June 2005. Special Report No. 5

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  • Reconsidering the Tools of War: Small Arms and Humanitarian Action, by Robert Muggah with Martin Griffiths, co-published with the Humanitarian Practice Network, Overseas Development Institute, July 2002.

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  • Humanitarianism under Threat: The Humanitarian Impact of Small Arms and Light Weapons, by Robert Muggah and Eric Berman, commissioned by the Reference Group on Small Arms of the UN Inter-Agency Standing Committee, July 2001. Special Report No. 1 (summary in French also available)

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Other Publications

  • Florquin, Nicolas. 2014. Arms Prices and Conflict Onset: Insights from Lebanon and Syria. European Journal on Criminal Policy and Research. May.

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  • Muggah, Robert. 2011. Measuring the True Costs of War: Consensus and Controversy. PLoS Medicine, Vol. 8, No. 2. February.

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  • ARM (Afghanistan Rights Monitor). 2011. ARM Annual Report Civilian Casualties of War - January-December 2010. Kabul: Afghanistan Rights Monitor.

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  • Hsiao-Rei Hicks, Madelyn et al. 2011. Violent Deaths of Iraqi Civilians, 2003–2008: Analysis by Perpetrator, Weapon, Time, and Location. PLoS Medicine, Vol. 8, No. 2. February.

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  • Dardagan, Hamit, John Sloboda, and Richard Iron. 2010. In Everyone’s Interest: Recording All The Dead, Not Just Our Own. British Army Review. No. 149. 

  • Human Security Report Project. 2010. Human Security Report 2009/2010: The Causes of Peace and the Shrinking Costs of War. New York: Oxford University Press.

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  • Green, Penny and Tony Ward. 2009. The Transformation of Violence in Iraq. British Journal of Criminology. Vol. 49, No. 5. September, pp. 609–627.

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  • Harbom, Lotta and Peter Wallensteen. 2009. Armed Conflicts, 1946–2008. Journal of Peace Research, Vol. 46, No. 4. Pp. 577–587.

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  • Mathers, Colin D., et al. 2005. Counting the Dead and What They Died From: An Assessment of the Global Status of Cause of Death Data. Bulletin of the World Health Organization. Vol. 83, No. 3. March, pp. 171-180.

  • Human Security Centre. 2005. Human Security Report 2005: War and Peace in the 21st Century. New York: Oxford University Press.

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  • Guha-Sapir, Debarati and Willem Gijsbert. Conflict-related Mortality: An Analysis of 37 Datasets. 2004. Disasters, Vol. 28, No. 4. December, pp. 418–428.

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Further Resources

Uppsala Conflict Data Program and Centre for the Study of Civil War: Data on Armed Conflict

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