Sie sind hier: Regulations and Controls / Levels of Action / International
21.7.2017 : 6:48 : +0200

Global Focus

International Measures

The key actor at the international level is the United Nations. The Wassenaar Arrangement, comprising arms exporting countries from around the world, has also adopted several important small arms measures. These two organizations do not, however, exhaust the list of international measures. The following sections include the full text of key international instruments and initiatives, as well as references to publications that review their content and implementation.

Publications:

International Instruments

Firearms Protocol

UN member states adopted the UN Convention against Transnational Organized Crime in November 2000. UNTOC was supplemented by three protocols that address trafficking in persons, the smuggling of migrants, and the illicit manufacture of and trafficking in firearms. The third of these—the UN Protocol against the Illicit Manufacturing of and Trafficking in Firearms, Their Parts and Components and Ammunition, known as the Firearms Protocol—was adopted on 31 May 2001 by General Assembly Resolution 55/255 and entered into force on 3 July 2005 (UNGA, 2001c). For states that have ratified or otherwise formally expressed their consent to be bound by it, the Firearms Protocol is legally binding.

UN Programme of Action on Small Arms (PoA)

The Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects—known as the Programme of Action, or PoA—establishes a normative framework for small arms control and covers a broad spectrum of issue areas and activities. Agreed to by all participants of a UN small arms conference held in July 2001, the PoA is a politically binding set of global commitments that provides UN member states with a mandate to develop and implement practical measures to curb the illicit trade in small arms and light weapons at the global, regional, and national levels.

Regional organizations play a role in implementing small arms control measures, including those covered by the PoA.

International Tracing Instrument (ITI)

The International Instrument to Enable States to Identify and Trace, in a Timely and Reliable Manner, Illicit Small Arms and Light Weapons—known as the International Tracing Instrument, or ITI—is a politically binding instrument adopted by UN member states in 2005. The ITI grew out of efforts to promote the development of international marking, record-keeping, and tracing measures.

Arms Trade Treaty (ATT)

The Arms Trade Treaty is a multilateral instrument that regulates the international transfer of conventional arms, including small arms and light weapons. The ATT was adopted on 2 April 2013 by General Assembly Resolution 67/234 B. Ninety days after it is ratified by 50 UN member states it will enter into force. Once it enters into force, the ATT will be legally binding on those states that have ratified or otherwise formally expressed their consent to be bound by it.

General

Small Arms Survey Publications

  • One Meeting after Another: UN Process Update, February 2015. Issue Brief No. 12.

    Download (706.79 KB)
  • Controlling Small Arms: Consolidation, Innovation and Relevance in Research and Policy, edited by Peter Batchelor and Kai Michael Kenkel, published by Routledge, January 2014.

    More information
  • The Arms Trade Treaty: A Step Forward in Small Arms Control?, June 2013. Research Note No. 30, Measures and Programmes (also available in Arabic, French,  and Spanish).

    Download (324.08 KB)
  • The Programme of Action Implementation Monitor (Phase 1): Assessing Reported Progress, by Sarah Parker with Katherine Green, August 2012. Occasional Paper No. 30

    Download (886.02 KB)
  • A Decade of Implementing the United Nations Programme of Action on Small Arms and Light Weapons: Analysis of National Reports, by Sarah Parker and Katherine Green, co-published with the UN Institute for Disarmament Research (UNIDIR), 2012.

    Download (3.02 MB)
  • An Arms Trade Treaty: Will It Support or Supplant the PoA?, March 2012. Research Note No. 15, Measures and Programmes.

    Download (227.39 KB)
  • The PoA: Review of National Reports, October 2011, updated March 2012. Research Note No. 10, Measures and Programmes (also available in Catalan and Spanish).

    Download (220.86 KB)
  • Transparency Counts: Assessing State Reporting on Small Arms Transfers, 2001-08, by Jasna Lazarevic, June 2010. Occasional Paper No. 25

    Download (1.53 MB)
  • Making Global Public Policy: The Case of Small Arms and Light Weapons, by Edward Laurence and Rachel Stohl, December 2002. Occasional Paper No. 7

    Download (292.02 KB)
File 1 to 17 out of 17
First < Back Page 1 Next > Last

Other Publications

  • Corney, Neil and Nicholas Marsh. 2013. Aiming for Control: The need to include ammunition in the Arms Trade Treaty. Oslo: Peace Research Institute Oslo (PRIO).

    Download
  • Efrat, Asif. 2010. Toward Internationally Regulated Goods: Controlling the Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons. In International Organization Vol 64, Issue 01: 97-131. 20 Jan.

    More information
  • Centre for Humanitarian Dialogue. 2005. Missing Pieces: Directions for Reducing Gun Violence through the UN Process on Small Arms Control. Geneva: Centre for Humanitarian Dialogue.

    Download (1.44 MB)
  • Krause, Keith. 2002. Multilateral Diplomacy, Norm Building, and UN Conferences: The Case of Small Arms and Light Weapons. Global Governance, Vol. 8, No. 2.

    Download (73.66 KB)
File 1 to 4 out of 4
First < Back Page 1 Next > Last

Further Resources

     

    UN

    Small Arms Survey Publications

    • Monitoring UN Arms Embargoes: Observations from Panel of Experts, by Emile LeBrun and Christelle Rigual, November 2016. Occasional Paper No. 33.

      Download (275.63 KB)
    • The Arms Trade Treaty: A Practical Guide to National Implementation, edited by Sarah Parker, August 2016. Handbook No. 4.

      Download (1.46 MB)
    • Broken Promises: The Arms Embargo on Darfur since 2012, July 2014. HSBA Issue Brief Number 24 (also available in Arabic).

      Download
    • A Guide to the UN Small Arms Process: 2016 Update, by Sarah Parker with Marcus Wilson, June 2016. Handbook No. 2 (2014 edition available in French)

      Download (1.8 MB)
    • Regional Organizations and the Programme of Action on Small Arms (PoA), 2nd edn. By Eric G. Berman and Kerry Maze, June 2016. Handbook No. 1 (also available in French)

      More information
    • A New Development Agenda: Bridging the Development–Security Divide, June 2016. Research Note No. 58.

      Download (739.06 KB)
    • Measuring Illicit Arms Flows: SDG Target 16.4, May 2016. Research Note No. 57.

      Download (402.44 KB)
    • What the National Reports Reveal: Trends in UN PoA and ITI Reporting, June 2015. Issue Brief No. 13.

      Download (1.04 MB)
    • Behind the Curve: New Technologies, New Control Challenges, edited by Benjamin King and Glenn McDonald, February 2015. Occasional Paper No. 32.

      Download (1.58 MB)
    • One Meeting after Another: UN Process Update, February 2015. Issue Brief No. 12.

      Download (706.79 KB)
    • Arms Trade Treaty: Model Law. Co-published with the New Zealand Government, October 2014.

      Download (1.45 MB)
    • The Arms Trade Treaty: A Step Forward in Small Arms Control?, June 2013. Research Note No. 30, Measures and Programmes (also available in Arabic, French,  and Spanish).

      Download (324.08 KB)
    • Regional Organizations and the PoA, September 2012. Research Note No. 21, Measures and Programmes (also available in French and Spanish).

      Download (796.62 KB)
    • 2012 and Beyond: Advocacy and Action in the UN Small Arms Process, by Jim McLay, August 2012. Briefing Paper No. 2.

      Download (602.67 KB)
    • The Programme of Action Implementation Monitor (Phase 1): Assessing Reported Progress, by Sarah Parker with Katherine Green, August 2012. Occasional Paper No. 30

      Download (886.02 KB)
    • A Decade of Implementing the United Nations Programme of Action on Small Arms and Light Weapons: Analysis of National Reports, by Sarah Parker and Katherine Green, co-published with the UN Institute for Disarmament Research (UNIDIR), 2012.

      Download (3.02 MB)
    • An Arms Trade Treaty: Will It Support or Supplant the PoA?, March 2012. Research Note No. 15, Measures and Programmes.

      Download (227.39 KB)
    • Precedent in the Making: The UN Meeting of Governmental Experts, March 2012. Issue Brief No. 5.

      Download (469.1 KB)
    • Weapons Tracing and Peace Support Operations: Theory or Practice?, March 2012. Issue Brief No. 4 (also available in French).

      Download (894.54 KB)
    • Small Arms Transfer Control Measures and the Arms Trade Treaty: A Small Arms Survey Review (2007–10). 2012. Compilation of Small Arms Survey chapters.

      Download (2.22 MB)
    • The PoA: Review of National Reports, October 2011, updated March 2012. Research Note No. 10, Measures and Programmes (also available in Catalan and Spanish).

      Download (220.86 KB)
    • Analysis of National Reports: Implementation of the UN Programme of Action on Small Arms and the International Tracing Instrument in 2009–10, by Sarah Parker, May 2011. Occasional Paper No. 28

      Download (1.77 MB)
    • Marking, Record-keeping, and Tracing Implementation Support Cards. Designed and distributed to promote easy understanding of the International Tracing Instrument (ITI). Produced with support from the US Department of State's Office of Weapons Removal and Abatement.

      Download (1.35 MB)
    • National Implementation of the United Nations Small Arms Programme of Action and the International Tracing Instrument: An Analysis of Reporting in 2009-10 (Interim Version, June 2010), by Sarah Parker, June 2010. Working Paper No. 9 (see Annexes)

      Download (431.14 KB)
    • Implementing the United Nations Programme of Action on Small Arms and Light Weapons: Analysis of the National Reports Submitted by States from 2002 to 2008, by Sivia Cattaneo and Sarah Parker, co-published with the UN Institute for Disarmament Research (UNIDIR), the UN Development Programme (UNDP), and the UN Department for Disarmament Affairs (UNDDA), 2008.

      Download (1.4 MB)
    • Five Years of Implementing the United Nations Programme of Action on Small Arms and Light Weapons: Regional Analysis of National Reports, by Elli Kytömäki and Valerie Yankey-Wayne, co-published with the UN Institute for Disarmament Research (UNIDIR), the UN Development Programme (UNDP), and the UN Department for Disarmament Affairs (UNDDA), 2006.

      Download (1.1 MB)
    • Implementing the United Nations Programme of Action on Small Arms and Light Weapons: Analysis of the Reports Submitted by States in 2003, by Elli Kytömäki and Valerie Yankey-Wayne, co-published with UNIDIR, October 2004.

      Download (2.15 MB)
    • Making Global Public Policy: The Case of Small Arms and Light Weapons, by Edward Laurence and Rachel Stohl, December 2002. Occasional Paper No. 7

      Download (292.02 KB)
    File 1 to 43 out of 43
    First < Back Page 1 Next > Last

    Other Publications

    • McDonald, Glenn and Jordan Shepherd. 2012. ‘Résolution 1467 (2003)’. In Les grandes résolutions du Conseil de sécurité des Nations unies. Mélanie Albaret et al, eds. Paris: Editions Dalloz. 

      More information
    • Parker, Sarah. 2015. Practical Disarmament Initiative: Stockpile Management and Diversion Provisions in Selected International and Regional Instruments. Unpublished Briefing Paper. Small Arms Survey with MAG International. Also in French.

      Download (906.01 KB)
    • Cattaneo, Silvia and Sarah Parker. 2008. Implementing the United Nations Programme of Action on Small Arms and Light Weapons: Analysis of the National Reports Submitted by States from 2002 to 2008. Geneva: United Nations Institute for Disarmament Research (UNIDIR). December.

      More information
    • Čekuolis, Dalius. 2008. ‘Tackling the Illicit Small Arms Trade: The Chairman Speaks.’ Arms Control Today, Vol. 38, No. 8. October, pp. 19–24.

      More information
    • Fruchart, Damien, et al. 2007. United Nations Arms Embargoes: Their Impact on Arms Flows and Target Behaviour. Stockholm: SIPRI, Uppsala: Special Program on Implementation of Targeted Sanctions, Department of Peace and Conflict Research of the Uppsala University.

      More information
    • Thurin, Anne, ed. 2006. Integrating Development into the UN Program of Action Process. Report and Recommendations from an Expert Seminar, Oslo, 22-23 March 2006. Oslo: NISAT.

      More information
    • BtB (Biting the Bullet Project: International Alert, Saferworld, University of Bradford) with IANSA (International Action Network on Small Arms). 2006. Reviewing Action on Small Arms 2006: Assessing the First Five Years of the UN Programme of Action. London: Biting the Bullet.

      More information
    • Kytömäki, Elli and Valerie Yankey-Wayne. 2006. Five Years of Implementing the United Nations Programme of Action on Small Arms and Light Weapons: Regional Analysis of National Reports. Geneva: UNIDIR.

      More information
    • Biting the Bullet Project. 2005. International Action on Small Arms 2005: Examining Implementation of the UN Programme of Action. London: Biting the Bullet and IANSA.

      More information
    • Biting the Bullet Project. 2003. Implementing the Programme of Action 2003: Action by States and Civil Society. London: Biting the Bullet and IANSA.

      More information
    • Clegg, Elizabeth, et al. 2002. Implementing the UN Action Programme for Combating the Illicit Trafficking in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects. Biting the Bullet. Briefing 15. London and Washington, DC: BASIC, International Alert, and Saferworld.

      Download
    File 1 to 11 out of 11
    First < Back Page 1 Next > Last

    Instruments and Documents

    • UNGA (United Nations General Assembly). 2010. Report of the Fourth Biennial Meeting of States to Consider the Implementation of the Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects. June.

      Download
    • PoA-ISS (United Nations Programme of Action Implementation Support System). 2010. Matching Needs and Resources- Assistance proposals from Member States submitted through their 2010 national reports under the Programme of Action on the illicit trade in small arms and light weapons. June.

      Download
    • UNGA (United Nations General Assembly). 2009. The Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects. Resolution 64/50 of 2 December.

      Download (112.38 KB)
    • UNGA (United Nations General Assembly). 2009. Assistance to States for curbing the illicit traffic in small arms and light weapons and collecting them - The illicit trade in small arms and light weapons in all its aspects. Consolidated report of the Secretary General to the General Assembly on small arms. A/64/173 of 27 July.

      Download
    • UNIDIR (United Nations Institute for Disarmament Research). 2009. Implementing the UN Programme of Action: A Checklist for Matching Needs and Resources.

      Download
    • UNGA (United Nations General Assembly). 2008. The Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects. Resolution 63/72 of 2 December. A/RES/63/72 of 12 January 2009.

      Download
    • UNGA (United Nations General Assembly). 2008. Report of theThird Biennial Meeting of States to Consider the Implementation of the Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects. 20 August.

      Download
    • UNGA (United Nations General Assembly). 2008. Report of the Group of Governmental Experts Established Pursuant to General Assembly Resolution 61/72 to Consider Further Steps to Enhance Cooperation with Regard to the Issue of Conventional Ammunition Stockpiles In Surplus. A/63/182 of 28 July.

      Download
    • UNSC (United Nations Security Council). 2008. Secretary General's report to the Security Council: Small arms (S/2008/258) April.

      Download
    • UNGA (United Nations General Assembly). 2007. The Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects. Resolution 62/47 of 5 December. A/RES/62/47 of 10 January 2008.

      Download
    • UNGA (United Nations General Assembly). 2007. Report of the Group of Governmental Experts Established Pursuant to General Assembly Resolution 60/81 to Consider Further Steps to Enhance International Cooperation in Preventing, Combating and Eradicating Illicit Brokering in Small Arms and Light Weapons. A/62/163 of 30 August.

      Download
    • UNGA (United Nations General Assembly). 2006. The Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects. Resolution 61/66 of 6 December. A/RES/61/66 of 3 January 2007.

      Download
    • UNGA (United Nations General Assembly). 2006. Consolidated report of the Secretary General to the General Assembly on small arms. A/61/288 of 23 August.

      Download
    • UNGA (United Nations General Assembly). 2006. Prevention of human rights violations committed with small arms and light weapons. A/HRC/Sub.1/58/27 of 27 July.

      Download (318.61 KB)
    • UNGA (United Nations General Assembly). 2005. International Instrument to Enable States to Identify and Trace, in a Timely and Reliable Manner, Illicit Small Arms and Light Weapons (‘International Tracing Instrument’). A/60/88.  27 June (annexe).

      Download
    • UNGA (United Nations General Assembly). 2005. Prevention of human rights violations committed with small arms and light weapons. E/CN.4/Sub.2/2005/35 (2005).

      More information
    • UNGA (United Nations General Assembly). 2004. Progress report on the prevention of human rights violations committed with small arms and light weapons. E/CN.4/Sub.2/2004/37 Add. 1 (2004).

      More information
    • UNGA (United Nations General Assembly). 2004. Progress report on the prevention of human rights violations committed with small arms and light weapons. E/CN.4/Sub.2/2004/37 (2004).

      More information
    • UNODC (United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime). 2004. Legislative Guides for the Implementation of the United Nations Convention against Transnational Organized Crime and the Protocols thereto.

      More information
    • UN (United Nations). 2003. Prevention of Human Rights Violations Committed with Small Arms and Light Weapons - Preliminary Report Submitted by Barbara Frey, Special Rapporteur, in Accordance with Sub-Commission Resolution 2002/25. E/CN.4/Sub.2/2003/29.

      More information
    • UN (United Nations). 2002. The Question of the Trade, Carrying and Use of Small Arms and Light Weapons in the Context of Human Rights and Humanitarian Norms - Working Paper Submitted by Ms Barbara Frey in Accordance with Sub-Commission Decision 2001/120. E/CN.4/Sub.2/2002/39. 30 May 2002.

      More information
    • UNGA (United Nations General Assembly). 2002. Optional Protocol to the Convention on the Rights of the Child on the Involvement of Children in Armed Conflict. A/RES/54/253. Entered into Force 12 February 2002.

      More information
    • UN (United Nations). 2001. Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects (‘Programme of Action’). Report of the United Nations Conference on the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects. A/CONF.192/15. New York: UN. July.

      More information
    • UNGA (United Nations General Assembly). 2001. Protocol Against the Illicit Manufacturing of and Trafficking in Firearms, Their Parts and Components and Ammunition, Supplementing the United Nations Convention Against Transnational Organized Crime. A/RES/55/255. New York: UN. 8 June. 

      Download
    • UNGA. 2001. Interpretative Notes for the Official Records ("Travaux préparatoires") of the Negotiation of the Protocol Against the Illicit Manufacturing of and Trafficking in Firearms, Their Parts and Components and Ammunition, Supplementing the United Nations Convention Against Transnational Organized Crime. Reproduced in UN Document A/55/383/Add.3 of 21 March.

      More information
    • UNGA (United Nations General Assembly). 2000. United Nations Convention Against Transnational Organized Crime. A/RES/55/25 adopted 15 November 2000.

      More information
    • UN (United Nations). 1999. Report of the Group of Governmental Experts on Small Arms. A/54/258. 19 August.

      Download (847.43 KB)
    • UN (United Nations). 1999. Report of the Group of Experts on the Problem of Ammunition and Explosives. A/54/155. 29 June.

      Download
    • UN (United Nations). 1997. Report of the Panel of Governmental Experts on Small Arms. 
A/52/298. 27 August.

      More information
    • UN (United Nations). 1995. Supplement to an Agenda for Peace: Position Paper of the Secretary-General on the Occasion of the Fiftieth Anniversary of the United Nations. A/50/60-S/1995/1. 25 January.

      More information
    File 1 to 30 out of 31
    First < Back Page 1 Page 2 Next > Last

    Further Resources

       

      Wassenaar Arrangement

      Small Arms Survey Publications

      • MANPADS Proliferation Reduction by Design: On Countermeasures and Kill Switches, February 2015. Issue Brief No. 11.

        Download (391.77 KB)
      File 1 to 2 out of 2
      First < Back Page 1 Next > Last

      Instruments and Documents

      • WA (Wassenaar Arrangement). 2007. Best Practices to Prevent Destabilising Transfers of Small Arms and Light Weapons (SALW) through Air Transport.

        Download
      • WA (Wassenaar Arrangement). 2007. Updated Best Practice Guidelines for Exports of Small Arms and Light Weapons (SALW).

        Download
      • WA (Wassenaar Arrangement).  2007. Updated Elements for Export Controls of Man-Portable Air Defence Systems (MANPADS).

        Download
      • WA (Wassenaar Arrangement). 2006. Best Practice Guidelines for the Licensing of Items on the Basic List and Sensitive List of Dual-Use Goods and Technologies

        Download
      • WA (Wassenaar Arrangement). 2005. End-user Assurances Commonly Used: Consolidated Indicative List.

        Download
      • WA (Wassenaar Arrangement). 2003. The Wassenaar Arrangement Elements for Effective Legislation on Arms Brokering. 12 December 2003.

        More information
      File 1 to 6 out of 6
      First < Back Page 1 Next > Last

      Further Resources

         

        Other International Measures

        Instruments and Documents

        • ICAO (International Civil Aviation Organization). 2004. Threat to Civil Aviation Posed by Man-Portable Air Defence Systems (MANPADS). Resolution A35-11. Adopted at ICAO Assembly's 35th session, Sept.-Oct.

          Download (619.85 KB)
        • G8. 2004. Secure and Facilitated International Travel Initiative (SAFTI). Sea Island Summit. 8-10 June.

          More information
        • G8. 2003. Enhance Transport Security and Control of Man-Portable Air Defence Systems (MANPADS): A G8 Action Plan. Evian Summit, 1-3 June.

          More information
        •  The Second Oslo Meeting on Small Arms and Light Weapons. December 1999.

          Download (26.32 KB)
        • The [First] Oslo Meeting on Small Arms. July 1998.

          Download (15.56 KB)
        File 1 to 5 out of 5
        First < Back Page 1 Next > Last
         
        Share this content
        Share this content: