Spreading Fallout: The Collapse of the ARCSS and New Conflict Along the Equatorias-DRC Border, May 2017. HSBA Issue Brief Number 28.Download
Web Trafficking: Analysing the Online Trade of Small Arms and Light Weapons in Libya, by N.R. Jenzen-Jones and Ian McCollum, April 2017. Working Paper No. 26.Download (1.18 MB)
Security is a precondition for meaningful safety and real opportunities for development. There are many ways of encouraging security in societies affected by armed violence. In some cases, governments may invest in enhancing security through reforms to their armed forces, police forces, and justice sectors. Around the world, communities themselves are involved in ensuring their own security through neighbourhood watch groups, local militias, and other forms of meting out justice.
The promotion of security thus involves a wide range of initiatives. Security programming includes a host of military, peacekeeping, policing, justice, and penal activities designed to restore real and perceived safety. Typically, security programmes can take place before, during, and after armed conflicts come to an end, but also in countries ostensibly unaffected by warfare. Key types of security programmes examined by the Small Arms Survey include disarmament, demobilization, and reintegration and security system reform as well as weapons collection and destruction, stockpile management, and ammunition and small arms tracing.
Disarmament, demobilization, and reintegration (DDR) consists of a range of interventions to promote security when armed conflicts come to an end. The Small Arms Survey has shown that DDR activities have expanded dramatically in size and reach since the early 1990s. Well over 60 DDR activities have taken place in Latin America and the Caribbean, the Balkans, Sub-Saharan Africa, the Middle East, Central, South, and South-east Asia, and the South Pacific. Numerous multilateral and bilateral agencies are now supporting DDR, including the World Bank, the UN Development Programme, and the International Organization for Migration.
Security sector reform (SSR) incorporates a wide range of activities designed to ensure civilian oversight over security institutions and actors. Typically, the key focus of SSR is ensuring that military, policing, judicial, and penal organs of the state are organized in line with acceptable standards, while also managed effectively by the executive and legislature. The Small Arms Survey has undertaken research on various aspects of SSR, including in relation to the police use of force, arms and ammunition stockpile standards, and the ‘right-sizing’ of the armed forces.
Armed violence prevention and reduction (AVR) entails a number of interventions designed to reduce the exposure and effects of insecurity. AVR activities can be subdivided into ‘direct’ and ‘indirect’ programmes and projects. The first category is focused on reducing access to arms, working with at-risk actors, and enhancing the institutions to regulate armed violence. The second category typically aim to reduce the risk factors associated with the onset of armed violence, including through youth employment schemes, activities designed to promote youth education, and urban renewal initiatives.