Sie sind hier: Security Programmes
20.4.2021 : 9:40 : +0200

Recent Publications

  • War Crimes and Punishment: The Terrain Compound Attack and Military Accountability in South Sudan, 2016–18, by Flora McCrone. HSBA Briefing Paper, August 2019.

  • Displaced and Immiserated: The Shilluk of Upper Nile in South Sudan’s Civil War, 2014–19, by Joshua Craze. HSBA Report, September 2019.

  • Preventing Diversion: Comparing ATT and African Measures for Importing States, by Paul Holtom and Benjamin Jongleux. Briefing Paper, August 2019.

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Security Programmes








Security is a precondition for meaningful safety and real opportunities for development. There are many ways of encouraging security in societies affected by armed violence. In some cases, governments may invest in enhancing security through reforms to their armed forces, police forces, and justice sectors. Around the world, communities themselves are involved in ensuring their own security through neighbourhood watch groups, local militias, and other forms of meting out justice.

The promotion of security thus involves a wide range of initiatives. Security programming includes a host of military, peacekeeping, policing, justice, and penal activities designed to restore real and perceived safety. Typically, security programmes can take place before, during, and after armed conflicts come to an end, but also in countries ostensibly unaffected by warfare. Key types of security programmes examined by the Small Arms Survey include disarmament, demobilization, and reintegration and security system reform as well as weapons collection and destruction, stockpile management, and ammunition and small arms tracing. 

Disarmament, Demobilization, and Reintegration

Disarmament, demobilization, and reintegration (DDR) consists of a range of interventions to promote security when armed conflicts come to an end. The Small Arms Survey has shown that DDR activities have expanded dramatically in size and reach since the early 1990s. Well over 60 DDR activities have taken place in Latin America and the Caribbean, the Balkans, Sub-Saharan Africa, the Middle East, Central, South, and South-east Asia, and the South Pacific. Numerous multilateral and bilateral agencies are now supporting DDR, including the World Bank, the UN Development Programme, and the International Organization for Migration.

Security Sector Reform

Security sector reform (SSR) incorporates a wide range of activities designed to ensure civilian oversight over security institutions and actors. Typically, the key focus of SSR is ensuring that military, policing, judicial, and penal organs of the state are organized in line with acceptable standards, while also managed effectively by the executive and legislature. The Small Arms Survey has undertaken research on various aspects of SSR, including in relation to the police use of force, arms and ammunition stockpile standards, and the ‘right-sizing’ of the armed forces.

Armed Violence Prevention and Reduction

Armed violence prevention and reduction (AVR) entails a number of interventions designed to reduce the exposure and effects of insecurity. AVR activities can be subdivided into ‘direct’ and ‘indirect’ programmes and projects. The first category is focused on reducing access to arms, working with at-risk actors, and enhancing the institutions to regulate armed violence. The second category typically aim to reduce the risk factors associated with the onset of armed violence, including through youth employment schemes, activities designed to promote youth education, and urban renewal initiatives.



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