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Armed Violence Prevention and Reduction

Although the incidence of armed conflict has declined in recent years, the number of people killed by armed violence has not. More than 740,000 men, women, and children die each year as a result of armed violence. The majority of these deaths—490,000—occur in countries that are not affected by armed conflict. Armed violence affects all societies, all countries, and people of all walks of life.

Armed violence involves the intentional use of force to cause physical and psychological harm. Considerable loss of life caused by armed violence is compounded by social and economic costs. For example, lost productivity due to armed violence in non-conflict settings is conservatively estimated at between USD 95 billion and 163 billion per year. Violent civil conflict can decrease the annual growth of a typical economy by approximately two per cent. There are also many less visible forms of armed violence, including sexual and gender-based violence, extrajudicial killings, kidnappings, and forced disappearances. More positively, numerous activities are underway to directly and indirectly prevent and reduce the incidence of armed violence.

The Small Arms Survey supports a range of activities related to measuring and monitoring the causes, prevalence, and effects of armed violence around the world. For example, working with the Geneva Declaration Secretariat, a focus is placed on examining the many categories of armed violence, their risk factors, and consequences. Armed violence assessments have been undertaken in Burundi, Côte d’Ivoire, Guatemala, Lebanon, Nepal, Sudan, Timor-Leste, and elsewhere. Likewise, the Small Arms Survey collaborates with the UN Development Programme, the World Health Organization, the UN Office on Drugs and Crime, and many other research institutions to generate improved data and analysis on patterns and trends of armed violence.

   

Small Arms Survey Publications

  • Implementing the Geneva Declaration on Armed Violence and Development. Handbook. Published by Geneva Declaration Secretariat. April 2014. (Summary available in English and Spanish).

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  • Instruments of Violence: Weapons Control Efforts to Reduce and Prevent Armed Violence, April 2014, by Marcus Wilson, published by the Geneva Declaration Secretariat.  Policy Paper No.3. (also available in French).

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  • Inclusive Security, Inclusive Cities, April 2014, by Emilia Frost and Matthias Nowak, published by the Geneva Declaration Secretariat.  Policy Paper No.1. (also available in French and Spanish). 

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  • Armed Violence Monitoring Systems, March 2013. Research Note No. 27, Armed Violence (also available in Arabic and in Spanish).

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  • Urban Armed Violence, November 2012. Research Note No. 23, Armed Violence. 

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  • Tracking National Homicide Rates: Generating Estimates Using Vital Registration Data, November 2012, Armed Violence Issue Brief No. 1 (see also Annexe 1, Annexe 2, Annexe 3).

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  • Working Against Violence: Promising Practices in Armed Violence Reduction and Prevention, by Paul Eavis, published by the Geneva Declaration Secretariat, October 2011 (also available in Spanish).

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  • Reading between the Lines: Crime and Victimization in Liberia, September 2011. Liberia Armed Violence Assessment Issue Brief No. 2

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  • Tackling Violence against Women: From Knowledge to Practical Initiatives, by Jennifer Milliken with Elisabeth Gilgen and Jasna Lazaravic, published by the Geneva Declaration Secretariat, June 2011. 

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  • Understanding Violence: The Role of Injury Surveillance Systems in Africa, by Diego E. Zavala and Jennifer M. Hazen, November 2009

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  • 'Insecurity Is Also a War': An Assessment of Armed Violence in Burundi, by Stéphanie Pézard and Savannah de Tessières, October 2009 (also available in French)

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  • Social Integration, Ergo, Stabilization - Viva Rio in Port-au-Prince, by Helen Moestue and Robert Muggah, co-published with Viva Rio, 2009. (available in English, French and Portuguese)

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  • Armed Violence Prevention and Reduction: A Challenge for Achieving the Millennium Development Goals, by Keith Krause and Robert Muggah, June 2008

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  • Responses to pastoral wars: a review of violence reduction efforts in Sudan, Uganda, and Kenya, September 2007. HSBA Issue Brief No. 8 (also available in Arabic)

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Instruments and Documents

  • Geneva Declaration on Armed Violence and Development. 2006. Geneva, 7 June. 

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Other Publications

  • Buchanan, Cate, ed. 2011. Armed Violence in Mindanao: Militia and private armies. Centre for Humanitarian Dialogue and the Institute of Bangsamoro Studies. Geneva: Centre for Humanitarian Dialogue.

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  • Buchanan, Cate, ed. 2011. Conflict Resolution: Learning Lessons from Dialogue Processes in India. Centre for Humanitarian Dialogue and the Delhi Policy Group. Geneva: Centre for Humanitarian Dialogue.

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  • Buchanan, Cate, ed. 2011. Conflict Management in Indonesia - An Analysis of the Conflicts in Maluku, Papua and Poso. Centre for Humanitarian Dialogue and the Indonesian Institute of Sciences and Current Asia. Geneva: Centre for Humanitarian Dialogue.

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  • Muggah, Robert. 2010. Children, Small Arms and Light Weapons. In International Bureau for Children’s Rights, ed. Children and Armed Conflict: A Guide to International Humanitarian and Human Rights Law, pp. 251-266. Montréal: IBCR.

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  • Muggah, Robert. 2010. Rethinking Small Arms Control in Africa: Time for an Armed Violence Reduction Agenda, Journal of Conflict, Security and Development, Vol. 10, Issue 2, pp. 217 – 238. London: Routledge.

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  • Townsend, Dorn and Robert Muggah. 2009. A Gangster’s Paradise. Open Democracy. 2 December.

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  • Muggah, Robert and Kees Kingma. 2009. Critical issues in DDR: Context, Indicators, Targeting and Challenges. Washington DC: World Bank.

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  • Muggah, Robert and Keith Krause. 2009. Closing the Gap between Peace Operations and Post-Conflict Insecurity: Towards a Violence Reduction Agenda, International Peacekeeping Vol. 16, Issue 1, February, pp. 136-150. London: Routledge.

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  • OECD (Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development). 2009. Armed Violence Reduction: Enabling Development. Paris: OECD.

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  • Muggah, Robert. 2008. An armed violence prevention and reduction agenda, in Medicine, Conflict and Survival, Vol. 24, Issue 4. London: Routledge.

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  • Muggah, Robert and Keith Krause. 2008. La Violencia Armada en América Latina y el Caribe, Hechos de Callejón, Vol 32. (online)

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  • WHO (World Health Organization). 2008. Violence Prevention, the evidence. Geneva: WHO.

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