The Illicit Possession and Transfer of MANPADS: A Global Assessment
'Despite an unprecedented global campaign to curtail the illicit proliferation of man-portable air defence systems (MANPADS), armed groups continue to acquire and use these weapons at an alarming rate. The Small Arms Survey has identified reports of illicit MANPADS in 32 countries and territories on five continents since 2011. These reports include imagery of dozens of advanced (third and fourth generation) systems acquired by non-state actors ranging from pro-Russian separatists in Ukraine to ethnic armed groups in Myanmar. At least five of the nine models of advanced MANPADS identified by the Survey had not been observed in the possession of armed groups prior to 2011...'
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